In the web.config the blob cache was enabled. We disabled the cache and enabled the cache again, without succes. Also several resets and Application pool recycles didn't work The solution was to disable the cache and remove the folder containing the cache. After enabling the cache the error message disappeared and image rendition worked again.
BlobCache for SharePoint 2013 not working
After a big server crash we received issues that the image rendition wasn't working anymore on a SharePoint 2013 intranet environment.